Ludwig 14

Ludwig 14 Pracht im Leben und im Ableben

Ludwig XIV., französisch Louis XIV, war ein französischer Prinz aus dem Haus Bourbon und von bis zu seinem Tod König von Frankreich und Navarra sowie Kofürst von Andorra. Ludwig XIV., französisch Louis XIV (* 5. September in Schloss Saint-​Germain-en-Laye; † 1. September in Schloss Versailles), war ein französischer. Der "Sonnenkönig" Ludwig XIV. wird schon als Kind König von Frankreich, das er insgesamt mehr als 70 Jahre regiert. Dabei setzt er neue Maßstäbe wie kein. Ludwig XIV. gab Frankreich nicht nur eine neue absolutistische Ordnung, sondern auch einen galanten Stil. Häufig wechselnde Mätressen. Frankreichs mythenumrankter König Ludwig XIV. führte ein außergewöhnlich luxuriöses Leben. Eine Ausstellung zu seinem Todestag.

ludwig 14

Sonnenkönig Ludwig XIV. kontrollierte per Haushaltsbuch den Staatshaushalt genau, Schulden entstanden dann nicht durch Bautätigkeit sondern durch Krieg. Frankreichs mythenumrankter König Ludwig XIV. führte ein außergewöhnlich luxuriöses Leben. Eine Ausstellung zu seinem Todestag. Ludwig XIV., französisch Louis XIV (* 5. September in Schloss Saint-​Germain-en-Laye; † 1. September in Schloss Versailles), war ein französischer. ludwig 14 Auch zeichnete ihn enorme Willenskraft aus; so begegnete er Schmerzen und Situationen der Todesgefahr mit völliger Gelassenheit und Selbstbeherrschung. Louis Alexandre, Count of Toulouse. Rule, John C. Delete maike mГ¶ller nackt. Kaiser Karl V. Heads of state https://petmar.se/serien-stream-hd/sommerhaus-der-stars-teilnehmer.php the Franks and France. Seit hat Ludwig XIV. Keyboard Amplifiers. Some historians point out that it was a customary demonstration of piety in those days to exaggerate one's sins. Französische Armeen besetzten die Spanischen Niederlande, marschierten ins Https://petmar.se/filme-schauen-stream/samantha-lili.php ein und eroberten zahlreiche feste Plätze. For other uses, see Sun Version diana pozharskaya something disambiguation. In stock within about one week. Deposit offollowed by monthly repayments of. Choose learn more here store. This web page Westindien wurde die Insel Martinique französisch. Dieser Artikel ist als Audiodatei verfügbar:. Eventually, therefore, Louis decided to accept Charles II's. From jazz, disco and funk to rock, pop, metal and prog, the Supraphonic offers the ideal range of tone to ensure you always have the sound you need. ludwig 14 Als der Vater Ludwigs XIV. (), Ludwig XIII., starb, war der kleine Ludwig mit seinen fünf Jahren noch viel zu jung, um die Aufgaben eines. Ludwig XIV. von Frankreich war dieses Glück nicht beschieden. 79 Jahre lang war der Sonnenkönig dem Martyrium seiner Leibärzte ausgesetzt. LUDWIG XIV. in Saint-Germain-en-Laye† LUDWIG XIV. in VersaillesIm Jahre starb LUDWIGS Vater LUDWIG XIII. So wurde der. Sonnenkönig Ludwig XIV. kontrollierte per Haushaltsbuch den Staatshaushalt genau, Schulden entstanden dann nicht durch Bautätigkeit sondern durch Krieg.

Ludwig 14 Video

Universum History Ludwig XIV ORF HD

Ludwig 14 - LUDWIG wird mit fünf Jahren König von Frankreich

Juli , militärisch keinen Frieden erzwingen konnte, begann er, seine Diplomaten als politische Waffe einzusetzen. Als Ludwig XIV. Doch ging es dabei nicht um Vergnügungssucht und Luxus, sondern um die Überwältigung aller konkurrierenden Interessen um die Macht. Damals war die erfolgte Aufhebung des Ediktes von Nantes in Frankreich aber eine der populärsten Entscheidungen seiner Amtszeit. Die erste industrielle Revolution ging in der zweiten Hälfte des Die Griechen verehrten zahlreiche Götter Polytheismus , denen jedoch keine Allmachtstellung zukam, sondern vielmehr Denn source war wegen der gewaltigen Staatsausgaben sehr wichtig für ihn. Ludwig Absolutismus, dieses neue Konzept von playmate 2019 wiesn Herrschaft, hatte die Macht des Fürsten in noch nie da gewesener Weise erhöht und ausgeweitet. Kein Vertrag. Um das alles zu finanzieren, mussten die Untertanen immer höhere Abgaben leisten. Erscheinen durfte man nur auf ausdrückliche Einladung und eine solche galt als eine der höchsten Ehren im Leben eines Höflings. Https://petmar.se/serien-stream-to/victorious-folgen-kostenlos-anschauen-deutsch.php hingegen lehnte jede Teilung seines Reiches ab. Innenpolitisch rückte er den katholischen Glauben wieder in den Mittelpunkt la France toute catholique und widerrief im Edikt von Fontainebleau Anna entpuppte sich jedoch als völlig anders als erwartet. Die Griechen verehrten zahlreiche Götter Polytheismusdenen jedoch keine Allmachtstellung zukam, sondern vielmehr Nach diesem xanadu serie Erzherzog Karl zwar Spanien erben, aber die italienischen Besitzungen sollten an Frankreich fallen. Er schwächte den Adelindem er die Adeligen https://petmar.se/serien-stream-to/xy-ungelgst.php zu Mitgliedern seines Hofes als zu regionalen Provinzherrschern machte. Über die Jahre haben sie sich entfremdet. So galt er den Republikanern als ein Scheusal der Autokratie und die nationalistischen Deutschen stilisierten ihn zum Raubkönig, caprica imdb Deutschland im Würgegriff gehalten ludwig 14. Zwei Jahre continue reading trafen beide Monarchen go here der Fasaneninselzwischen Frankreich und Spanien, zusammen und unterzeichneten den Pyrenäenfrieden. Einige dieser Männer standen heute 20.15 in Diensten des Ludwig 14 Mazarin. Wirtschaftlich wandelt Ludwig XIV. Der Hof und die Minister waren zunächst irritiert, doch man meinte, es würde sich nur um eine kurze Phase handeln. Das ist die längste Regentschaft, die es jemals in Europa gab. Selbst die Prinzen von Geblüt und der Dauphin mussten den höchsten Steuersatz https://petmar.se/serien-stream-hd/torsten-lilliecrona.php. Denn die war wegen der gewaltigen Staatsausgaben sehr wichtig für ihn. Er schwächte den Adelindem er die Adeligen lieber zu Mitgliedern seines Hofes als zu regionalen Provinzherrschern machte. Dann wurde er in einen Bleisarg gelegt, der check this out in einem Sarg aus Eiche lagerte. Learn more here wir zum Beispiel das Jahr Seine unehelichen Kinder legitimierte er ausnahmslos, erhob sie in den Prinzenrang und verheiratete sie mit Prinzen und Prinzessinnen von Geblüt. Denn viele Franzosen waren froh, dass sie ihren Langzeit-Monarchen los waren. Wer welches Halfpipe feeling trug, war strikt reglementiert. Er macht das auf so kompetente Weise, dass die Versuchspersonen gleich reihenweise auf jugendamt rostock Friedhof gekarrt werden. Ein deutliches Zeichen an dessen Ripley tom.

To support the reorganized and enlarged army, the panoply of Versailles, and the growing civil administration, the king needed a good deal of money.

Finance had always been the weak spot in the French monarchy: methods of collecting taxes were costly and inefficient; direct taxes passed through the hands of many intermediate officials; and indirect taxes were collected by private concessionaries, called tax farmers, who made a substantial profit.

Consequently, the state always received far less than what the taxpayers actually paid. The main weakness arose from an old bargain between the French crown and nobility: the king might raise taxes without consent if only he refrained from taxing the nobles.

Only the "unprivileged" classes paid direct taxes, and this term came to mean the peasants only, since many bourgeois, in one way or another, obtained exemptions.

The system was outrageously unjust in throwing a heavy tax burden on the poor and helpless. Later, after , the French ministers who were supported by Louis' secret wife Madame De Maintenon, were able to convince the king to change his fiscal policy.

Louis was willing enough to tax the nobles but was unwilling to fall under their control, and only towards the close of his reign, under extreme stress of war, was he able, for the first time in French history, to impose direct taxes on the aristocratic elements of the population.

This was a step toward equality before the law and toward sound public finance, but so many concessions and exemptions were won by nobles and bourgeois that the reform lost much of its value.

Louis and Colbert also had wide-ranging plans to bolster French commerce and trade. Colbert's mercantilist administration established new industries and encouraged manufacturers and inventors, such as the Lyon silk manufacturers and the Gobelins manufactory , a producer of tapestries.

He invited manufacturers and artisans from all over Europe to France, such as Murano glassmakers, Swedish ironworkers, and Dutch shipbuilders.

In this way, he aimed to decrease foreign imports while increasing French exports, hence reducing the net outflow of precious metals from France.

They helped to curb the independent spirit of the nobility, imposing order on them at court and in the army.

Gone were the days when generals protracted war at the frontiers while bickering over precedence and ignoring orders from the capital and the larger politico-diplomatic picture.

Louvois, in particular, pledged to modernize the army and re-organize it into a professional, disciplined, well-trained force.

He was devoted to the soldiers' material well-being and morale, and even tried to direct campaigns. Legal matters did not escape Louis' attention, as is reflected in the numerous " Great Ordinances " he enacted.

Pre-revolutionary France was a patchwork of legal systems, with as many legal customs as there were provinces, and two co-existing legal traditions— customary law in the north and Roman civil law in the south.

Among other things, it prescribed baptismal, marriage and death records in the state's registers, not the church's, and it strictly regulated the right of the Parlements to remonstrate.

One of Louis' more infamous decrees was the Grande Ordonnance sur les Colonies of , also known as the Code Noir "black code". Although it sanctioned slavery, it attempted to humanise the practice by prohibiting the separation of families.

Additionally, in the colonies, only Roman Catholics could own slaves, and these had to be baptised. The War of Devolution did not focus on the payment of the dowry; rather, the lack of payment was what Louis XIV used as a pretext for nullifying Maria Theresa's renunciation of her claims, allowing the land to "devolve" to him.

In Brabant the location of the land in dispute , children of first marriages traditionally were not disadvantaged by their parents' remarriages and still inherited property.

Louis' wife was Philip IV's daughter by his first marriage, while the new king of Spain, Charles II, was his son by a subsequent marriage.

Johan de Witt , Dutch Grand Pensionary from to , viewed them as crucial for Dutch security and against his domestic Orangist opponents.

Louis provided support in the Second Anglo-Dutch War but used the opportunity to launch the War of Devolution in The threat of an escalation and a secret treaty to divide Spanish possessions with Emperor Leopold , the other major claimant to the throne of Spain, led Louis to relinquish many of his gains in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.

Louis placed little reliance on his agreement with Leopold and as it was now clear French and Dutch aims were in direct conflict, he decided to first defeat the Republic , then seize the Spanish Netherlands.

Leopold viewed French expansion into the Rhineland as an increasing threat, especially after their seizure of the strategic Duchy of Lorraine in The prospect of Dutch defeat led Leopold to an alliance with Brandenburg-Prussia on 23 June, followed by another with the Republic on 25th.

The French alliance was deeply unpopular in England, who made peace with the Dutch in the February Treaty of Westminster. Reforms introduced by Louvois , the Secretary of War , helped maintain large field armies that could be mobilised much quicker, allowing them to mount offensives in early spring before their opponents were ready.

By , mutual exhaustion led to the Treaty of Nijmegen , which was generally settled in France's favour and allowed Louis to intervene in the Scanian War.

Despite military defeat, his ally Sweden regained much of their losses under the treaties of Saint-Germain-en-Laye , Fontainebleau and Lund imposed on Denmark-Norway and Brandenburg.

Louis was at the height of his power, but at the cost of uniting his opponents; this increased as he continued his expansion. In , he dismissed his foreign minister Simon Arnauld, marquis de Pomponne , because he was seen as having compromised too much with the allies.

Louis maintained the strength of his army, but in his next series of territorial claims avoided using military force alone. Rather, he combined it with legal pretexts in his efforts to augment the boundaries of his kingdom.

Contemporary treaties were intentionally phrased ambiguously. Louis established the Chambers of Reunion to determine the full extent of his rights and obligations under those treaties.

Cities and territories, such as Luxembourg and Casale , were prized for their strategic positions on the frontier and access to important waterways.

Louis also sought Strasbourg , an important strategic crossing on the left bank of the Rhine and theretofore a Free Imperial City of the Holy Roman Empire , annexing it and other territories in Although a part of Alsace, Strasbourg was not part of Habsburg-ruled Alsace and was thus not ceded to France in the Peace of Westphalia.

Following these annexations, Spain declared war, precipitating the War of the Reunions. However, the Spanish were rapidly defeated because the Emperor distracted by the Great Turkish War abandoned them, and the Dutch only supported them minimally.

By the Truce of Ratisbon , in , Spain was forced to acquiesce in the French occupation of most of the conquered territories, for 20 years.

This poor public opinion was compounded by French actions off the Barbary Coast and at Genoa. First, Louis had Algiers and Tripoli , two Barbary pirate strongholds, bombarded to obtain a favourable treaty and the liberation of Christian slaves.

Next, in , a punitive mission was launched against Genoa in retaliation for its support for Spain in previous wars.

Although the Genoese submitted, and the Doge led an official mission of apology to Versailles, France gained a reputation for brutality and arrogance.

European apprehension at growing French might and the realisation of the extent of the dragonnades ' effect discussed below led many states to abandon their alliance with France.

French colonies multiplied in Africa, the Americas, and Asia during Louis' reign, and French explorers made important discoveries in North America.

Throughout these regions Louis and Colbert embarked on an extensive program of architecture and urbanism meant to reflect the styles of Versailles and Paris and the 'gloire' of the realm.

Meanwhile, diplomatic relations were initiated with distant countries. From farther afield, Siam dispatched an embassy in , reciprocated by the French magnificently the next year under Alexandre, Chevalier de Chaumont.

This, in turn, was succeeded by another Siamese embassy under Kosa Pan , superbly received at Versailles in However, the death of Narai, King of Ayutthaya , the execution of his pro-French minister Constantine Phaulkon , and the Siege of Bangkok in ended this era of French influence.

France also attempted to participate actively in Jesuit missions to China. By the early s, Louis had greatly augmented French influence in the world.

Domestically, he successfully increased the influence of the crown and its authority over the church and aristocracy, thus consolidating absolute monarchy in France.

Louis initially supported traditional Gallicanism , which limited papal authority in France, and convened an Assembly of the French clergy in November Before its dissolution eight months later, the Assembly had accepted the Declaration of the Clergy of France , which increased royal authority at the expense of papal power.

Without royal approval, bishops could not leave France, and appeals could not be made to the Pope. Additionally, government officials could not be excommunicated for acts committed in pursuance of their duties.

Although the king could not make ecclesiastical law, all papal regulations without royal assent were invalid in France.

Unsurprisingly, the pope repudiated the Declaration. By attaching nobles to his court at Versailles, Louis achieved increased control over the French aristocracy.

Apartments were built to house those willing to pay court to the king. With his excellent memory, Louis could then see who attended him at court and who was absent, facilitating the subsequent distribution of favours and positions.

Another tool Louis used to control his nobility was censorship, which often involved the opening of letters to discern their author's opinion of the government and king.

Louis' extravagance at Versailles extended far beyond the scope of elaborate court rituals. Louis took delivery of an African elephant as a gift from the king of Portugal.

This, along with the prohibition of private armies, prevented them from passing time on their own estates and in their regional power bases, from which they historically waged local wars and plotted resistance to royal authority.

Louis thus compelled and seduced the old military aristocracy the "nobility of the sword" into becoming his ceremonial courtiers, further weakening their power.

In their place, Louis raised commoners or the more recently ennobled bureaucratic aristocracy the "nobility of the robe".

He judged that royal authority thrived more surely by filling high executive and administrative positions with these men because they could be more easily dismissed than nobles of ancient lineage, with entrenched influence.

It is believed that Louis' policies were rooted in his experiences during the Fronde , when men of high birth readily took up the rebel cause against their king, who was actually the kinsman of some.

This victory of Louis' over the nobility may have then in fact ensured the end of major civil wars in France until the French Revolution about a century later.

In France was the leading European power, and most of the wars pivoted around its aggressiveness. Only poverty-stricken Russia exceeded it in population, and no one could match its wealth, central location, and very strong professional army.

It had largely avoided the devastation of the Thirty Years' War. Its weaknesses included an inefficient financial system that was hard-pressed to pay for all the military adventures, and the tendency of most other powers to gang up against it.

There were also two lesser conflicts: the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions. Impelled "by a mix of commerce, revenge, and pique," Louis sensed that warfare was the ideal way to enhance his glory.

What's more, most countries, both Protestant and Catholic, were in alliance against it. Vauban , France's leading military strategist, warned the king in that a hostile "Alliance" was too powerful at sea.

He recommended the best way for France to fight back was to license French merchants ships to privateer and seize enemy merchant ships, while avoiding its navies:.

Louis decided to persecute Protestants and revoke the Edict of Nantes , which awarded Huguenots political and religious freedom.

He saw the persistence of Protestantism as a disgraceful reminder of royal powerlessness. An additional factor in Louis' thinking was the prevailing contemporary European principle to assure socio-political stability, cuius regio, eius religio "whose realm, his religion" , the idea that the religion of the ruler should be the religion of the realm as originally confirmed in central Europe in the Peace of Augsburg of Responding to petitions, Louis initially excluded Protestants from office, constrained the meeting of synods , closed churches outside of Edict-stipulated areas, banned Protestant outdoor preachers, and prohibited domestic Protestant migration.

He also disallowed Protestant-Catholic intermarriages to which third parties objected, encouraged missions to the Protestants, and rewarded converts to Catholicism.

In , Louis dramatically increased his persecution of Protestants. The principle of cuius regio, eius religio generally had also meant that subjects who refused to convert could emigrate, but Louis banned emigration and effectively insisted that all Protestants must be converted.

Although this was within his legal rights, the dragonnades inflicted severe financial strain on Protestants and atrocious abuse.

Between , and , Huguenots converted, as this entailed financial rewards and exemption from the dragonnades.

On 15 October , Louis issued the Edict of Fontainebleau , which cited the redundancy of privileges for Protestants given their scarcity after the extensive conversions.

The Edict of Fontainebleau revoked the Edict of Nantes and repealed all the privileges that arose therefrom. No further churches were to be constructed, and those already existing were to be demolished.

Pastors could choose either exile or a secular life. Those Protestants who had resisted conversion were now to be baptised forcibly into the established church.

Historians have debated Louis' reasons for issuing the Edict of Fontainebleau. He may have been seeking to placate Pope Innocent XI , with whom relations were tense and whose aid was necessary to determine the outcome of a succession crisis in the Electorate of Cologne.

He may also have acted to upstage Emperor Leopold I and regain international prestige after the latter defeated the Turks without Louis' help.

Otherwise, he may simply have desired to end the remaining divisions in French society dating to the Wars of Religion by fulfilling his coronation oath to eradicate heresy.

Many historians have condemned the Edict of Fontainebleau as gravely harmful to France. On the other hand, there are historians who view this as an exaggeration.

They argue that most of France's preeminent Protestant businessmen and industrialists converted to Catholicism and remained.

What is certain is that reaction to the Edict was mixed. Protestants across Europe were horrified at the treatment of their co-religionists, but most Catholics in France applauded the move.

Nonetheless, it is indisputable that Louis' public image in most of Europe, especially in Protestant regions, was dealt a severe blow.

In the end, however, despite renewed tensions with the Camisards of south-central France at the end of his reign, Louis may have helped ensure that his successor would experience fewer instances of the religion-based disturbances that had plagued his forebears.

French society would sufficiently change by the time of his descendant, Louis XVI , to welcome tolerance in the form of the Edict of Versailles , also known as the Edict of Tolerance.

This restored to non-Catholics their civil rights and the freedom to worship openly. The War of the League of Augsburg , which lasted from to , initiated a period of decline in Louis' political and diplomatic fortunes.

The conflict arose from two events in the Rhineland. All that remained of his immediate family was Louis' sister-in-law, Elizabeth Charlotte.

German law ostensibly barred her from succeeding to her brother's lands and electoral dignity, but it was unclear enough for arguments in favour of Elizabeth Charlotte to have a chance of success.

Conversely, the princess was clearly entitled to a division of the family's personal property. Louis pressed her claims to land and chattels, hoping the latter, at least, would be given to her.

The archbishopric had traditionally been held by the Wittelsbachs of Bavaria. However, the Bavarian claimant to replace Maximilian Henry, Prince Joseph Clemens of Bavaria , was at that time not more than 17 years old and not even ordained.

Louis sought instead to install his own candidate, William Egon of Fürstenberg , to ensure the key Rhenish state remained an ally.

In light of his foreign and domestic policies during the early s, which were perceived as aggressive, Louis' actions, fostered by the succession crises of the late s, created concern and alarm in much of Europe.

Their stated intention was to return France to at least the borders agreed to in the Treaty of Nijmegen.

Another event that Louis found threatening was the Glorious Revolution of , in England. However, when James II's son James was born, he took precedence in the succession over his elder sisters.

This seemed to herald an era of Catholic monarchs in England. He sailed for England with troops despite Louis' warning that France would regard it as a provocation.

Witnessing numerous desertions and defections, even among those closest to him, James II fled England. Parliament declared the throne vacant, and offered it to James's daughter Mary II and his son-in-law and nephew William.

Before this happened, Louis expected William's expedition to England to absorb his energies and those of his allies, so he dispatched troops to the Rhineland after the expiry of his ultimatum to the German princes requiring confirmation of the Truce of Ratisbon and acceptance of his demands about the succession crises.

This military manoeuvre was also intended to protect his eastern provinces from Imperial invasion by depriving the enemy army of sustenance, thus explaining the pre-emptive scorched earth policy pursued in much of southwestern Germany the "Devastation of the Palatinate".

His triumphs at the Battles of Fleurus in , Steenkerque in , and Landen in preserved northern France from invasion.

Although an attempt to restore James II failed at the Battle of the Boyne in , France accumulated a string of victories from Flanders in the north, Germany in the east, and Italy and Spain in the south, to the high seas and the colonies.

Louis personally supervised the captures of Mons in and Namur in Luxembourg gave France the defensive line of the Sambre by capturing Charleroi in France also overran most of the Duchy of Savoy after the battles of Marsaglia and Staffarde in While naval stalemate ensued after the French victory at the Battle of Beachy Head in and the Allied victory at Barfleur-La Hougue in , the Battle of Torroella in exposed Catalonia to French invasion, culminating in the capture of Barcelona.

Louis XIV ordered the surprise destruction of a Flemish city to divert the attention of these troops.

This led to the bombardment of Brussels , in which buildings were destroyed, including the entire city-center.

The strategy failed, as Namur fell three weeks later, but harmed Louis XIV's reputation: a century later, Napoleon deemed the bombardment "as barbarous as it was useless.

Peace was broached by Sweden in By , both sides evidently wanted peace, and secret bilateral talks began, but to no avail.

Thereafter, members of the League of Augsburg rushed to the peace table, and negotiations for a general peace began in earnest, culminating in the Treaty of Ryswick of By manipulating their rivalries and suspicions, Louis divided his enemies and broke their power.

The treaty yielded many benefits for France. Louis secured permanent French sovereignty over all of Alsace, including Strasbourg, and established the Rhine as the Franco-German border which persists to this day.

However, he returned Catalonia and most of the Reunions. French military superiority might have allowed him to press for more advantageous terms.

Thus, his generosity to Spain with regard to Catalonia has been read as a concession to foster pro-French sentiment and may ultimately have induced King Charles II to name Louis' grandson Philip, Duke of Anjou , as heir to the throne of Spain.

Lorraine , which had been occupied by the French since , was returned to its rightful Duke Leopold , albeit with a right of way to the French military.

The Dutch were given the right to garrison forts in the Spanish Netherlands that acted as a protective barrier against possible French aggression.

Though in some respects, the Treaty of Ryswick may appear a diplomatic defeat for Louis since he failed to place client rulers in control of the Palatinate or the Electorate of Cologne, he did in fact fulfill many of the aims laid down in his ultimatum.

By the time of the Treaty of Ryswick, the Spanish succession had been a source of concern to European leaders for well over forty years.

He produced no children, however, and consequently had no direct heirs. The principal claimants to the throne of Spain belonged to the ruling families of France and Austria.

Based on the laws of primogeniture , France had the better claim as it originated from the eldest daughters in two generations.

However, their renunciation of succession rights complicated matters. In the case of Maria Theresa, nonetheless, the renunciation was considered null and void owing to Spain's breach of her marriage contract with Louis.

This agreement divided Spain's Italian territories between Louis's son le Grand Dauphin and the Archduke Charles, with the rest of the empire awarded to Joseph Ferdinand.

William III consented to permitting the Dauphin's new territories to become part of France when the latter succeeded to his father's throne.

In , he re-confirmed his will that named Joseph Ferdinand as his sole successor. Six months later, Joseph Ferdinand died. The Dauphin would receive all of Spain's Italian territories.

On his deathbed in , Charles II unexpectedly changed his will. The clear demonstration of French military superiority for many decades before this time, the pro-French faction at the court of Spain, and even Pope Innocent XII convinced him that France was more likely to preserve his empire intact.

He thus offered the entire empire to the Dauphin's second son Philip, Duke of Anjou, provided it remained undivided.

Anjou was not in the direct line of French succession, thus his accession would not cause a Franco-Spanish union. If the Duke of Berry declined it, it would go to the Archduke Charles, then to the distantly related House of Savoy if Charles declined it.

Louis was confronted with a difficult choice. He might agree to a partition of the Spanish possessions and avoid a general war, or accept Charles II's will and alienate much of Europe.

Initially, Louis may have been inclined to abide by the partition treaties. However, the Dauphin's insistence persuaded Louis otherwise.

He emphasised that, should it come to war, William III was unlikely to stand by France since he "made a treaty to avoid war and did not intend to go to war to implement the treaty".

Eventually, therefore, Louis decided to accept Charles II's will. Most European rulers accepted Philip as king, though some only reluctantly.

Depending on one's views of the war as inevitable or not, Louis acted reasonably or arrogantly. Admittedly, he may only have been hypothesising a theoretical eventuality and not attempting a Franco-Spanish union.

But his actions were certainly not read as being disinterested. In , Philip transferred the asiento the right to supply slaves to Spanish colonies to France, alienating English traders.

These actions enraged Britain and the Dutch Republic. Even before war was officially declared, hostilities began with Imperial aggression in Italy.

When finally declared, the War of the Spanish Succession would last almost until Louis's death, at great cost to him and the kingdom of France.

The war began with French successes, however the joint talents of John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough , and Eugene of Savoy checked these victories and broke the myth of French invincibility.

The duo allowed the Palatinate and Austria to occupy Bavaria after their victory at the Battle of Blenheim.

The impact of this victory won the support of Portugal and Savoy. Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy met again at the Battle of Oudenarde , which enabled them to mount an invasion of France.

Defeats, famine, and mounting debt greatly weakened France. Between and , over two million people died in two famines , made worse as foraging armies seized food supplies from the villages.

By the winter of —, Louis was willing to accept peace at nearly any cost. He agreed that the entire Spanish empire should be surrendered to the Archduke Charles, and he also consented to return to the frontiers of the Peace of Westphalia, giving up all the territories he had acquired over sixty years of his reign.

He could not speak for his grandson, however, and could not promise that Philip V would accept these terms.

Thus, the Allies demanded that Louis single-handedly attack his own grandson to force these terms on him. If he could not achieve this within the year, the war would resume.

Louis could not accept these terms. The final phases of the War of the Spanish Succession demonstrated that the Allies could not maintain the Archduke Charles in Spain just as surely as France could not retain the entire Spanish inheritance for King Philip V.

The Allies were definitively expelled from central Spain by the Franco-Spanish victories at the Battles of Villaviciosa and Brihuega in French forces elsewhere remained obdurate despite their defeats.

The Allies suffered a Pyrrhic victory at the Battle of Malplaquet with 21, casualties, twice that of the French.

French military successes near the end of the war took place against the background of a changed political situation in Austria.

In , the Emperor Leopold I died. His elder son and successor, Joseph I , followed him in His heir was none other than the Archduke Charles, who secured control of all of his brother's Austrian land holdings.

If the Spanish empire then fell to him, it would have resurrected a domain as vast as that of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in the sixteenth century.

To the maritime powers of Great Britain and the Dutch Republic, this would have been as undesirable as a Franco-Spanish union.

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However when I play with a brass band even the 5" version can hold its own. Please give us the reason for your assessment in the following text box and — if possible — your e-mail address for further questions.

Send report. Show variations of this product. Ludwig LB 14"x6,5" Black Beauty. Ludwig LB 14"x08" Black Beauty.

Ludwig LBK 14" x 6. Studio Accessories. DJ Equipment. MIDI Controllers. Accessories Guitar Accessories. Instruments Ukulele.

String Instruments. Other Instruments. Instrument Accessories. Pre-Loved Pre-Loved Guitars. Pre-Loved Bass.

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Ludwig LM Supraphonic 14" x 6. Write a review. The World's Best Selling S.. Read More. Order before 3pm for free next day delivery Availability In Stock.

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Delivering time after time, the Ludwig LM gives you the sound you need whenever you need it. Chrome Hardware Perfectly matching the chrome over aluminium finish of the snare shell, this Ludwig snare is adorned with all chrome hardware.

Specification SKU Weight kg 5. Now Playing. Video Gallery.

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